Human intelligence is derived from human sources. [citation needed]. Raw HUMINT is disseminated to the Intelligence Community, including analysts in the CIA’s Directorate of Intelligence and U.S. Military officers in the field. Once hostilities begin, target selection often moves into the upper end of the military chain of command. According to the Air Force Institute of Technology's Center for MASINT Studies and Research, MASINT is split into six major disciplines: electro-optical, nuclear, radar, geophysical, materials, and radiofrequency. Congress U.S. SIGINT satellites are designed and built by the National Reconnaissance Office, although conducting U.S. signals intelligence activities is primarily the responsibility of the National Security Agency (NSA). The operational tier is below the strategic level of leadership and refers to the design of practical manifestation. (5) Desired experience. Areas of study may include the operational environment, hostile, friendly and neutral forces, the civilian population in an area of combat operations, and other broader areas of interest. The first is strategic intelligence, general information about the enemy and the world in general. However, human intelligence is often the only form of intelligence that provides information about an opponent's intentions and rationales, and it is therefore often uniquely valuable to successful negotiation of diplomatic solutions. "List of intelligence gathering disciplines", Learn how and when to remove this template message, Human intelligence (intelligence gathering), Airborne electro-optical missile tracking MASINT, Optical measurement of nuclear explosions, Effects of ionizing radiation on materials, Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) MASINT, Foreign instrumentation signals intelligence, Counterintelligence and counter-terrorism organizations, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_intelligence_gathering_disciplines&oldid=941796081, Articles needing additional references from April 2019, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 February 2020, at 19:04. Military intelligence is a military discipline that uses information collection and analysis approaches to provide guidance and direction to assist commanders in their decisions. In Psychology, there are two types of intelligence, as identified by American psychologists Raymond Cattell and John Horn: fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence. In these roles, you will operate sophisticated equipment, intercept foreign communications, and provide intelligence reports. Analysis consists of assessment of an adversary's capabilities and vulnerabilities. Their theory holds that an individual’s overall intelligence is a result of different skills … Until the technical revolution of the mid to latetwentieth century, HUMINT the primary so… A variety of intelligence organizations help to meet these needs. This vital keystone publication form s the core of joint intelligence doctrine and Analysis of bulk traffic is normally performed by complex computer programs that parse natural language and phone numbers looking for threatening conversations and correspondents. This revised edition of JP 2-0, Joint Intelligence, reflects the current guidance for conducting joint and multinational intelligence activities across the range of military operations. Raw HUMINT is disseminated to the Intelligence Community, including analysts in the CIA’s Directorate of Intelligence and U.S. Military officers in the field. To thepublic, HUMINT remains synonymous with espionage and clandestineactivities, yet, in reality, most HUMINT collection is performedby overt collectors such as diplomats and military attaches.HUMINT is the oldest method for collecting information about aforeign power. Packaging threats and vulnerabilities for decision-makers is a crucial part of military intelligence. You’ll provide essential information that … Also, much public information in a nation may be unavailable from outside the country. In some cases, automated analysis is performed in real time on automated data traffic. Since maps also have valuable civilian uses, these agencies are often publicly associated or identified as other parts of the government. In a real sense, these are threats and opportunities. Military Intelligence lieutenant colonels should seek the opportunity for joint qualification, intelligence broadening assignments, as well as professional development through progressive assignments. In the 21st century, knowledge is as vital as firepower to winning a war. Most intelligence services maintain or support groups whose only purpose is to keep maps. Human intelligence (HUMINT) are gathered from a person in the location in question. SWOT analysis provides different ‘lenses’ intelligence analysts and highlights factors that we could exploit as well as consideration for our own vulnerabilities also. For example, the population, ethnic make-up and main industries of a region are extremely important to military commanders, and this information is usually public. Vulnerabilities are usually indexed by the nation and military unit with a list of possible attack methods. This includes not only broadcasts of national and local radio and television, but also local military traffic, radar emissions and even microwaved telephone and telegraph traffic, including satellite traffic. The analysis reports are used to inform the remaining planning staff, influencing planning and seeking to predict adversary intent. It is also common for diplomatic and journalistic personnel to have a secondary goal of collecting military intelligence. The military objective provides a focus for the estimate process, from which a number of information requirements are derived. National Security Council 3. Analysts generally look for the least defended or most fragile resource that is necessary for important military capabilities. As an Army Military Intelligence Officer, you’ll be responsible for all collected intelligence during Army missions. The Coast Guard at War: Volume XII: Intelligence. Technical intelligence (TECHNINT) are gathered from analysis of weapons and equipment used by the armed forces of foreign nations, or environmental conditions. Information Security & Cyber Intelligence (incl. Washington, DC: Historical Section, Public Information Division, U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, January 1, 1949. Your ability to analyze information helps you encounter new problems. Strategic intelligence is of a yet bigger scale. Military counter terrorism techniques and responses are diverse. In some extraordinary cases, undersea or land-based cables have been tapped as well. This game of Chinese Whispers let the Swedes help their Norwegian neighbors while maintaining every sign of neutrality. Collection of read materials, composition of units or elements, disposition of strength, training, tactics, personalities (leaders) of these units and elements contribute to the overall intelligence value after careful analysis. 24–25. Some industrialized nations also eavesdrop continuously on the entire radio spectrum, interpreting it in real time. At the tactical level, briefings are delivered to patrols on current threats and collection priorities. 37-57)). Sources: Ralph Bennett (1999), Behind the Battle: Intelligence in the War with Germany 1939-1945. Strategic intelligence is information that is needed to formulate policy and military plans at … Military Intelligence (35): Army Commissioned Officer provides the commander with all-source intelligence assessments and estimates at the tactical, operational, and strategic levels dealing with enemy capabilities, intentions, vulnerabilities, effects of terrain and weather on operations, and predicts enemy courses of action. In response to the information requirements, analysts examine existing information, identifying gaps in the available knowledge. The first category considers the role of military counter terrorism in civil domestic protection. First, general media and sources are screened to locate items or groups of interest, and then their location, capabilities, inputs and environment are systematically assessed for vulnerabilities using a continuously-updated list of typical vulnerabilities. To provide an analysis, the commander's information requirements are first identified, which are then incorporated into intelligence collection, analysis, and dissemination. Most governments maintain a military intelligence capability to provide analytical and information collection personnel in both specialist units and from other arms and services. f. Analysis reports draw on all available sources of information, whether drawn from existing material or collected in response to the requirement. Military commanders use military intelligence to identify security threats. RAND has examined how nations successfully collect intelligence, how the U.S. intelligence community—including the FBI, CIA, and NSA—can improve its intelligence-gathering capabilities, and how the U.S. military can make better use of its … [2] Intelligence activities are conducted at all levels, from tactical to strategic, in peacetime, the period of transition to war, and during a war itself. [2] The Intelligence Cycle. ", Operational intelligence is focused on support or denial of intelligence at operational tiers. These are then flagged as critical vulnerabilities. Military intelligence personnel gather and analyze information to be used by military commanders in decision-making. Open-source intelligence (OSINT) are gathered from open sources. Military Intelligence (35): Army Commissioned Officer provides the commander with all-source intelligence assessments and estimates at the tactical, operational, and strategic levels dealing with enemy capabilities, intentions, vulnerabilities, effects of terrain and weather on operations, and predicts enemy courses of action. Intelligence should respond to the needs of leadership, based on the military objective and operational plans. A good intelligence officer will stay very close to the policy-maker or war fighter to anticipate their information requirements and tailor the information needed. SWOT analysis allows us to e… Naturalist Intelligence. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and senior military commanders; Congress; Types of Intelligence. Photointerpreters generally maintain catalogs of munitions factories, military bases and crate designs in order to interpret munition shipments and inventories. Generally, policy-makers are presented with a list of threats and opportunities. Commandant's Bulletin (Jun 10 1983), p. 34. The U.S. in particular is known to maintain satellites that can intercept cell-phone and pager traffic, usually referred to as the ECHELON system. The cycle is typically represented as a closed path of activities. Naturalist intelligence designates the human ability to discriminate among living things (plants, animals) as well as sensitivity to other features of the natural world (clouds, rock configurations). Military Intelligence lieutenant colonels serve at multiple echelons and types of positions throughout their tenure. 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