Explanation of the antibacterial activity of honey Osmotic effect Honey is a saturated or super-saturated solution of sugars, the water content usually being only 15-21% by weight124. Of the solids in honey, 84% is a mixture of the monosaccharides fructose and glucose125. Many of these substances have been discovered to have similar inhibitory effect and mechanisms of action to antibiotics, causing damage to bacterial cell walls as well as affecting protein synthesis in bacterial cells [5]. More research is needed in this area. These phenolic acids included protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, and benzoic acid. Honey exhibits a broad-spectrum of antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria, including antibiotic-resistant (MRSA) ones. The pH of the honey was considered to be the most important and effective factor in inhibiting microorganism growth which ranged between pH 3 and 5.4. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. The high health-promoting properties of honey have been recently confirmed in many research investigations. Nevertheless, the content of individual carbohydrates did vary and ranged between 329.2 to 426.3 mg/g for fructose and glucose (as the dominant components) [13]. Not all of the factors listed are present in all types of honey, and these compounds must be tested for and considered for clinical applications 3. Some of the differences in the composition of honey are due to the differences between regions (floral sources) but seasonal differences can also be important [10]. Manuka honey originates from the manuka tree (Leptospermum scoparium) and its antimicrobial effect has been attributed to a property referred to as Unique Manuka Factor that is absent in other types of honey. The antibacterial effect of honey refers to the experiment that identify the effect of honey on different bacteria growing on agar plates in order to find out the properties present in the honey that help to destroy the pathogenic bacteria as measured by Kirby Bauer method. Nevertheless, some bacterial strains are more sensitive to the osmotic effects of carbohydrate monomers and dimers than others, and it has been shown that a concentration of 15% (w/v) carbohydrate (fructose, glucose, and glucose and fructose combinations) was sufficient to have a similar inhibitory effect as honey on all 28 tested isolates of Helicobacter pylori [37]. A. Ghamdi, M. J. Ansari, Y. Al-Attal, A. Al-Mubarak, and K. Salom, “Differences in composition of honey samples and their impact on the antimicrobial activities against drug multiresistant bacteria and pathogenic fungi,”, G. Brandi, P. Sestili, M. A. Pedrini, L. Salvaggio, F. Cattabeni, and O. Cantoni, “The effect of temperature or anoxia on, J. Indeed, Weston showed that an important relationship exists between the levels of this enzyme and glucose oxidase and the resultant antibacterial effectiveness [12]. Myrrh extract. Honey is one such product that used to be widely used to combat bacteria. Antibacterial activity of Manuka honey has been documented for several bacterial pathogens, however there is no information on Clostridium difficile, an important nosocomial … According to the results of Estevinho et al., dark honey has a high level of phenolic compounds and this has been shown to have a good correlation with its higher antibacterial activity [24]. Castle, “Re-examining the role of hydrogen peroxide in bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of honey,”, K. Brudzynski and R. Lannigan, “Mechanism of honey bacteriostatic action against MRSA and VRE involves hydroxyl radicals generated from honey’s hydrogen peroxide,”, N. Al-Waili, A. The nature of nonperoxide antibacterial activity in Manuka honey was reported by Snow and Manley-Harris using S. aureus in alkaline honey solution. In contrast, S. aureus has been found to be completely inhibited by one honey variety at 17% when impregnated in nutrient agar [10]. The antibacterial activity ranged between 2% to 58% (w/v) with a median of 13.6%. Bogdanov studied the antibacterial activity of eleven types of honey, including the common varieties such as acacia, blossom, chestnut, lavender, and orange against Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus and found that the inhibition of the different honey varieties ranged from 37 to 74% [33]. Honey is an example of a naturally available product and is the only concentrated sweetener that can be found in nature. Curious Minds is a Government initiative jointly led by the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, the Ministry of Education and the Office of the Prime Minister’s Chief Science Advisor. Herbs, plants extracts, essential oils, and honey are the most common sources for these new active compounds [2], and these products have been found to be effective against a range of bacterial infections and inflammatory cases [4]. Dihydroxyacetone is a substance that occurs at high levels in the nectar from which Manuka honey is made. It is now understood that honey is not just sugar syrup with certain physical properties that make … Honey has been shown to have an antibacterial effect on bacteria commonly present in wounds, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE). The ten spices with the most potent antibacterial effects were garlic, onion, allspice, oregano, thyme, cinnamon, tarragon, cumin, cloves and lemon grass. The bacterial growth (change in turbidity) is assessed spectrophotometrically. Although the enzyme, glucose oxidase, is naturally present in honey, it is inactive in undiluted honey because of the low pH conditions [30]. The agar diffusion assay technique, for example, is a method in which a small quantity of honey or solution of honey is applied to the centre of a well (about 6 mm in diameter) cut into nutrient agar plate previously inoculated with a microbial culture [10]. This experiment compares the effect of different types of honey on bacteria growing on agar plates. This was supported by another study in which solutions of pasture honey 25% (w/v) showed no detectable antibacterial activity in the presence of catalase but an activity equivalent to 14.8% phenol without catalase, whereas the same solution of Manuka honey had activity equivalent to 13.2% with and without catalase [36]. In another study, thirty samples of honey from different parts of Oman were investigated for their activity against S. aureus. No inhibition was observed at 0.1% but the 1% concentration showed some inhibition with C. freundii, E. coli, M. phlei, and three species of Salmonella. This is similar to the findings of other studies and demonstrates the consistency amongst different varieties in terms of the key components [15, 16]. studied the antibacterial activity of 24 samples of honey (16 from Oman and eight from Africa) against three bacteria, namely, S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa. The phenolic acid level in honey can be affected by its botanical and geographical origin as it depends upon the source of the nectar. This survey will open in a new tab and you can fill it out after your visit to the site. Many factors have been shown to contribute to the antibacterial activity of honey, such as its high viscosity, mostly due to a high sugar concentration and low water content, which helps to provide a protective barrier to prevent infection. However, gentamicin showed generally lower antibacterial activity when used in concentrations of 8.0 and 4.0 μg/ml [79]. This suggests that honey contains other important components with antibacterial properties. The colour of honey ranges from light yellow, through to amber and dark reddish amber to a nearly black colour [23]. Moreover, 80% of people depend on these types of treatment in Asian countries such as China and India. However, recent studies on the antibacterial properties of diverse honey types produced worldwide have reported similar or superior antibacterial efficacy compared to Manuka honey. Natural products can be utilised in the discovery of new antimicrobial drugs and in the treatment of infectious diseases. This discovery has provoked an increase in the number of studies that have investigated the effect of substances other than peroxide activity. Honey has been shown to have a strong activity against many bacteria in both media and in culture. In case of raw honey-2, the maximum inhibition as produced by extracts was observed against S. typhi (31.18 mm zone size)> P. aeruginosa(26.00 mm zone size)
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