In this section, intruders are, categorized according to characteristics, motives and objectives, capabilities, Government websites, financial systems, news and media websites, military, networks, as well as public infrastructure systems are the main targets, for cyber-attacks. Media literacy alone was proven to be inadequate in managing/deterring the variables that embrace vulnerability to the two social engineering techniques. Some solutions must be strong, for example, authentication of bank cards or bank systems. Keywords: lifelong learning; literacy; phishing; psychological vulnerability; social engineering; tailgating. actuators, software resources like hardware-based software, operating system, drivers and applications, and the power source. In such scenario detection of threat in Industrial Internet of things (IIoT) devices becomes an important factor to avoid injection by malicious IIoT devices. Additional details are discussed, An attack itself may come in many forms, including active network. As these devices are battery powered and have low inbuilt resources, it is important to enable secure and resource-constrained security solutions to secure the devices. Through this paper, we have analyzed the various lightweight solution and their security threats under the authentication and data integrity of the IoT applications. An IoT device is capable of communicating with other IoT devices and ICT, systems. As a proof of concept, the proposed methodology is implemented in a construction network from a real project found in the literature. They could be, hackers, criminals, or even governments [7]. Hence, protecting SMEs from cybercrime and cyber security risks should be a major concern for SMEs themselves [1]. This paper is an attempt to classify, threat types, besides analyze and characterize intruders and attacks facing IoT, The recent rapid development of the Internet of Things (IoT) [1, 2] and its, ability to offer different types of services have made it the fastest growing, technology, with huge impact on social life and business environments. In fact this issue, authenticate each other through trustable services. Non-repudiation is not considered an, important security property for most of IoT, contexts, for instance, payment systems where users or providers cannot deny, Privacy is an entitys right to determine the degree to which it will interact with, its environment and to what extent the entity is willing to share information. In this paper, we review selected stateof-the-art challenges corresponding to digital forensics of IoT environments, and we present an empirical method on how to investigate a security incident reported for an IoT specific case - Smart Heating system. Attack, actors are people who are a threat to the digital world [6]. In particular, they can be weaknesses in system hardware, or software, weaknesses in policies and procedures used in the systems and. theft, brand theft, and fraud [6, 7, 44]. For example, a project owner can use this information to get a better understanding of what to do to limit its vulnerability, which will lead to the overall improvement of the security of the construction network. Authors: Mohamed Abomhara. In this survey, we analyze the current cybersecurity certification schemes, as well as the potential challenges to make them applicable for the IoT ecosystem. Human threats are those caused by people, such as malicious, threats consisting of internal [37] (someone has authorized access) or exter-, nal threats [38] (individuals or organizations working outside the network), looking to harm and disrupt a system. This research investigates the vulnerabilities of ICTs against man-made and natural hazards in a systematic way using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Internet of Things (IoT) devices are rapidly becoming ubiquitous while IoT services are becoming pervasive. For instance, a remote patient monitoring system will have. As part of the Internet of Things, industrial devices are now also connected to cloud services. Certainly, there are significant risks. The simulation results are compared to the results obtained by the Baum–Welch algorithm based approach showing higher accuracy and convergences. Among other things, cyber, launched against any public infrastructure like utility systems (power sys-, tems or water treatment plants) [22] to stop water or electricity supply to, Security and privacy issues are a growing concern for users and suppliers, in their shift towards the IoT [23]. weak points in the system and how the system works. Public and social media, websites are the most common places where general users can be deceived, by hackers. V, availability requirements. Sort by . It also helps to manage U-cities with more secure and sustainable services. Section 2 pro-. They are very skillful at, creating botnets and malicious software (e.g., computer viruses and scare-, ware) and denial-of-service attack methods [44]. vulnerable to external and internal attacks due to their characteristics [16]. The technology foundations for cloud computing led to a new approach of reusing what was achieved in GRID computing with support from virtualization. Essay genre has its own requirements. There are a number of, factors that lead to software design flaws, including human factors and, weaknesses. Cyber security employees a variety of people different skills. According to Cyber Security, “Underpinning the Digital Economy a report by the Institute of Directors and Barclays bank”, companies are keeping quiet about being victims of a cyber attack, even if their operations were badly affected by such an incident. Therefore, caution should be exercised to avoid generalizing the results of this study. They lack resources or expertise of professional, hacking teams, organizations or spy agencies. Cyber security Essays. Hence, there is a real need to secure IoT, which has consequently resulted in a need to comprehensively understand the, threats and attacks on IoT infrastructure. The information collected from sensors, embedded in heating or lighting systems could inform the intruder when, somebody is at home or out. Many such risks are attributable to device vulnerabilities that arise from, cybercrime by hackers and improper use of system resources. address the shortcomings of current IoT security mechanisms. critical to the actual safety of the ship, the cyber security in form of keeping the integrity of critical data intact cannot be undermined. <> This notion has driven the concept of system security and defined the disciplines of computer and computer network security. The study identifies the vulnerabilities of different ICTs in U-cities and helps in improving the system's resistivity against various hazards. The most common attacks on user, to spy or obtain secret information of individuals, organizations or, identification number (UID). A user of a device (or the device itself) must be capable of accessing services, anytime, whenever needed. This survey is intended to give a comprehensive overview of cybersecurity certification to facilitate the definition of a framework that fits in emerging scenarios, such as the IoT paradigm. �L�S���a j��������N|w G,3�f�x��������z�0�^ϯ�|v��߿�,���f,@e��!�hq�����N` �2����?���A}n?=x|��':>��������z����ٽ�E�γ�*ޗ'Tnw &ǫ9d��r����F�>'������Pl# ��Kf��B5|�ӀIn�rvTb͏�+�c���}R�J���Ey�E�!����S��q�B�?��6�a� @H��ҿK�H0d/�$�ep��jmTx�$��,FwuC~�.sq$��q��d6处F�P��fm�E� M78Ep`_�Sҗ���)-b�����6�,�D2��tt!���dz���T��tE��h�����A��A�R�FN�"Etb���1�a8L��PK=i���P��^���^t /�$�J�q�5��S���п$��B��gul��8]��l:��� IOP Conference Series Materials Science and Engineering. In existing model, the vehicle theft is distinguished and controlled by, Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Security requirements in the IoT environment are not different from any, other ICT systems. This grew out of the fact that once a resource has been judged to have value, no matter how much protection given to it, there is always a potential that the security provided for the resource will at some point fail. According to Wada and Odulaja (2012) it is an everyday reality and it is growing in an unprecedented dimension in line with the ICT development. (e.g., temperature, humidity, presence detectors, and pollution), actuators (e.g., light switches, displays, motor-assisted shutters, or any other action that a. device can perform) and embedded computers [24, 25]. Effective learning in the current 4.0 Industrial Revolution era may not happen if a learner is insensitive to two types of social engineering, namely phishing and tailgating. Internet of Things, Cyber-attack, Security threats. Such a huge network of unmanned devices are subjected to various security and privacy concern. Each attacker type. Every attacker chooses, an attack that is affordable, an attack with good return on the investment, based on budget, resources and experience [6]. Internet of Things (IoT) is the set of technologies that can interconnect anything, from daily life objects to more sophisticated networked devices. T, sions of trust should be considered in IoT: trust in the interactions between, entities, and trust in the system from the users perspective [29] According, to Køien [9] the trustworthiness of an IoT device depends on the device, components including the hardware, such as processor, memory. It causes a prescribed function, enabling, interaction with the physical world by measuring the state of entities or by. Here in this paper a technique described to overcome issue of existing one. These devices communicate via different means including cellular. In short, IoT enables a person to be connected to anyone around the world at any time using any device connected to the Internet. T, and their consequences, more research is needed to fill the gaps in knowledge, regarding threats and cybercrime and provide the necessary steps to mitigate, IoT faces a number of threats that must be recognized for protective action to, be taken. ... weak software and unencrypted file sharing) (Hutchins et al., 2015). Disaster recovery plans like backup, and contingency plans are the best approaches to secure systems against, natural threats. Threats can originate from two primary. IoT is a technology which interfaces things from different places on the planet. Cyber security means protecting data, networks, programs and other information from unauthorised or unattended access, destruction or change. All figure content in this area was uploaded by Geir M. Køien, All content in this area was uploaded by Geir M. Køien on Aug 31, 2015, Department of Information and Communication T, Internet of Things (IoT) devices are rapidly becoming ubiquitous while IoT, services are becoming pervasive. With the former, we have seen an entire ecosystem built around Amazon's Echo devices using the Alexa Voice Service. ... Communication among these entities is feasible due to hardware interfaces integrated into devices, as RFID sensors or tags, mobile terminals, or others, which permit physical entities to connect to the digital world. Upon describing and documenting, all threats and respective actors, it is easier to perceive which threat could, exploit what weakness in the system. ordinary intruders may have, namely, physical compromise. such incidents. The traditional formula used by security practitioners RISK = THREAT x VULNERABILITY is meant to show that risk is the effect of a threat exploiting a vulnerability in the system. The smart campus is a sustainable and well-connected environment that aims to improve experience, efficiency and education. They know the. Another prevalent group of, criminal organization entails hacktivists. Intruders have different motives and objectives, for instance, financial, gain, influencing public opinion, and espionage, among many others. Credit card information theft has a long history with individual, hackers. The author defines an ontology of threat motivations and their relation to system attacks. following two things should be considered: end-of-device life (deletion of the device data (Wipe) if the device, [50]. Social engineering techniques are most commonly used by individual, attackers, as they have to obtain basic information about a target system, like the address, password, port information, etc. stream and sending queries about IP address information. Cyber security is a complex issue that cuts across multiple domains and calls for multi-dimensional, multi-layered initiatives and responses. of Computer Science from 7th October University, Libya in 2006. Consumers, need confidence to fully embrace the IoT in order to enjoy its benefits and, The majority of IoT devices and services are exposed to a number, of common threats as discussed earlier, like viruses and denial-of-service, vulnerabilities is not sufficient; thus, ensuring a smooth policy implementation. Securing a Web service requires us to protect, as far as possible, all of its basic components, shown in Figure 3.1, and their interactions, along with the Web service life cycle, from the design to the operational phase. 12 0 obj It is challenging to implement and use a strong security mechanism due to, resource constraints in terms of IoT computational capabilities, memory, IoT services facilitate the easy integration of IoT entities into the service-, oriented architecture (SOA) world as well as service science [27]. rity should protect the services, hardware resources, information and data, both in transition and storage. The internet today is a great source of information. Each new paragraph can be started with cyber security research questions and continued with answers and recommendations. This study aims at investigating the predictors of vulnerability to phishing and tailgating from the psychological perspective. Most IoT components communicate over wireless networks where an. These devices are used to monitor the environment and help to exchange sensitive data over the Internet without much human interference. The threat is not a nebulous entity, but can be characterized by the elements that comprise its ability to affect a target system. policy issues for congress.” DTIC Document, 2008. on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Contr, Nuclear Plant was Far more Dangerous Than Previously Thought,”. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. This paper provides a novel approach to dealing with threat motivations, and offers a look at a system from a combined threat and vulnerability perspective instead of a vulnerability only viewpoint. In-depth knowledge of threats allows for better allocation of monies toward specific mitigations, as opposed to trying to fix every vulnerability in the system. %PDF-1.4 Besides all the IoT application benefits, several security threats are, observed [17–19]. All intruders, whether internal or external, can be or. Meaning of Cyber Security: Cyber security can be defined as the protection of systems, networks and data in cyber space. Few safeguards can be implemented against natural disasters, and nobody, can prevent them from happening. The impact of an intrusion depends on the goals to be achieved. The services expose the functionality of a device by accessing its hosted, Ensuring the security entails protecting both IoT devices and services, from unauthorized access from within the devices and externally. [49] B. Jung, I. Han, and S. Lee, “Security threats to internet: a korean, puter Laboratory, University of Cambridge, T, [54] I. Cervesato, “The dolev-yao intruder is the most powerful attacker,”, His research work is in the area of computer security, information secu-, rity, information system management, cyber, He received a Master of Computer Science (Data Communication and, Computer Network) from University of Malaya, Malaysia in 2011. According to estimates, M2M applications will reach 12 billion connections by 2020 and generate. In this era where the use of computers has become commonplace, cyber security is a major concern. It is certainly easy to imagine the amount. approximately 714 billion euros in revenues [2]. However, in most situations and scenarios sensitive data must not be disclosed or read by, unauthorized entities. Industries such as manufacturing, oil & gas, refining, pharmaceuticals, food & beverage, water treatment, and many more are constantly looking to add the right layers of security, as they bring an increasing number of equipment and devices online. 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